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Diet and the Risk of Heart Disease
Coronary heart disease or ischemic heart disease has been defined as an impairment of heart function due to inadequate blood flow to the heart compared to its needs, caused by obstructive changes in the coronary circulation to the heart.


Narrowing of the arterial lumen is the consequence of deposition of cholesterol in the innermost wall that obstructs the flow of blood to the heart leading to myocardial infarction and angina pain.

High level of cholesterol in the blood may be due to high level of fat or even non fat calorie in the diet. The energy which is not utilized is stored in the form of fat and when required is mobilized as lipoproteins. Lipoproteins are the packages of lipid and protein carrying cholesterol from liver to various body parts for utilization or storage. Both fat from the diet or that stored within the body is transported throughout the body in this manner only. In its course of passage, cholesterol starts depositing in the walls of blood vessel hence narrowing their lumen size.

These lipoproteins are of several kinds but the most known of them are LDL and HDL.

LDL-cholesterol
is often referred as bad cholesterol whereas the HDL- cholesterol is considered good cholesterol.
LDL is meant for transporting fat throughout the body whereas HDL moves the unutilized cholesterol to the liver for its final catabolism and hence to be thrown out of the body.

Elevated plasma LDL- cholesterol and reduced plasma HDL- cholesterol are associated with increased risk of CHD

Dietary Management to prevent or control CHD
Reduce total energy intake if overweight to achieve ideal body weight.
Reduce total intake of fat to less than 30% of the total energy intake.
Increase proportion of energy from complex carbohydrates.
Modify the types of fat by increasing unsaturated: saturated fatty acid balance.

Trans fat to contribute less than 2% of energy intake.
Increase intake of fibers.
Optimal intake of antioxidants.

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