and the Risk of Heart Disease Coronary heart disease or ischemic heart disease has been defined as an
impairment of heart function due to inadequate blood flow to the
heart compared to its needs, caused by obstructive changes in the
coronary circulation to the heart.
Narrowing of the arterial lumen
is the consequence of deposition of cholesterol in the innermost
wall that obstructs the flow of blood to the heart leading to
myocardial infarction and angina pain.
High level of cholesterol in the blood may be due to high level of
fat or even non – fat calorie in the diet. The energy which is not
utilized is stored in the form of fat and when required is
mobilized as lipoproteins. Lipoproteins are the packages of lipid
and protein carrying cholesterol from liver to various body parts
for utilization or storage. Both fat from the diet or that stored
within the body is transported throughout the body in this manner
only. In its course of passage, cholesterol starts depositing in
the walls of blood vessel hence narrowing their lumen size.
These lipoproteins are of several kinds but the most known of them
are LDL and HDL.
LDL-cholesterol is often referred as bad
cholesterol whereas the HDL- cholesterol is considered
cholesterol. LDL is meant for transporting fat throughout the body
whereas HDL moves the unutilized cholesterol to the liver for its
final catabolism and hence to be thrown out of the body.
Elevated plasma LDL- cholesterol and reduced plasma HDL-
cholesterol are associated with increased risk of CHD
Dietary Management to prevent or control CHD
Reduce total energy intake if overweight to achieve ideal body
Reduce total intake of fat to less than 30% of the total energy
Increase proportion of energy from complex carbohydrates.
Modify the types of fat by increasing unsaturated: saturated
fatty acid balance. Trans fat to contribute less than 2% of energy intake. Increase intake of fibers. Optimal intake of antioxidants.
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