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Factors leading to   Hypertension

  Hereditary
 Obesity
 Stress and
  Strain
  Normal systolic BP -  120 to  129
 Normal diastolic BP - 80 to 84

Risk Factors 

 Coronary heart disease
 Male sex
 Cigarette smoking
 Increased low density lipoprotein cholesterol
 Obesity


Foods to Avoid
 Meat, fish or chicken, Eggs, Pastries
 Papar, chutney & pickles, Vegetables (radish, beetroot, carrot, spinach), Dried figs, raisins and sultanas, Readymade curry powder, Vegetable ghee, vanaspati and margarine, No salt or baking soda to be used in cooking, No salt permitted at the table

No canned products permitted unless declared salt free.


Hypertension

High blood pressure, defined as systolic pressure above 140 mm Hg and diastolic above 90 mm Hg. High blood pressure may sometimes be secondary to diseases of kidneys or endocrine glands like the ovaries, suprarenals or pituitary; this may respond to treatment of the cause.
 

Essential hypertension is the most common disease of the industrialized societies, particularly among the middle and old age groups. It is a major contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and renal failure. The higher the systolic or the diastolic pressure, the greater the risk of coronary heart disease. 

DIETETIC MANAGEMENT
Kempner advocated a rice-fruit-sugar diet for high blood pressure that gave impressive results even in severe high blood pressure. Some authorities argue that the argument was due not only to the low protein, low fat, low sodium diet, but also due to the weight loss and rest under hospital conditions.

Calories
An obese patient must reduce to normal bodyweight with low calorie diet as recommended for obesity.

Proteins
A diet of 50 grams is necessary to maintain nutrition

Fats
It is advisable to avoid a high intake of animal fats or hydrogenated oils (vegetable ghee, vanaspati, margarine). About 40 to 50 grams fat, partly as vegetable oil, is permitted.

Carbohydrates
Easily digestible carbohydrates are of great help.

Minerals
The micronutrients affecting blood pressure are sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. 

Sodium (salt)
All patients with high blood pressure are advised to limit salt intake. 
Daily sodium intake:
Mild low sodium diet              : 2.3 grams
Moderately low sodium diets  :1.2 grams
Restricted low sodium diets   :0.6 grams

Potassium (salt substitute) 
Dietary potassium restriction increases blood pressure in patients with hypertension. If diuretics are administered to a patient with high blood pressure, supplements of fruit juices or potassium salts, such as 2 to 4 grams potassium citrate thrice a day, are administered. Increase in potassium intake is claimed to reduce blood pressure.

Calcium
Higher calcium intake raises blood pressure in some people

Magnesium
Indications are that magnesium is necessary to regulate blood pressure.

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DO YOU KNOW ?

  Vegetarians tend to have low blood pressure compared to non-vegetarians. Reducing fat intake from 36% of total calories to 24% results in slight reduction in blood pressure.
 

  What should be done for patients aged 30 to 40 years with diastolic pressure 95 to 105 mm Hg ?

  High blood pressure decreases with calorie or sodium restriction, even before weight loss occurs.

  Jogging reduces the diastolic pressure by about 15 to 20 mm Hg. Aerobic exercises also reduces blood pressure.

  Some marketed milk preparations for babies may have very high sodium content compared to cows milk.

  Three or more alcoholic drinks a day is a risk factor in high blood pressure.

  Smoking has a deleterious effect in high blood pressure. The risk of stroke declines as soon as smoking is stopped.

  Drinking 3 cups a day of caffeinated instant coffee over a period of 2 weeks does not affect blood pressure of patients with mild hypertension

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