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Sugar is a term for a class of edible crystalline carbohydrate, mainly sucrose, characterized by a sweet flavor. In food, sugar almost exclusively refers to sucrose, which in its fully refined (or frees sugar) form primarily comes from sugar cane and sugar beet, though is present in natural form in many carbohydrates.

Chemical Terminology:
"Sugar" can also be used to refer to water-soluble crystalline carbohydrates with varying sweetness. Sugars include monosaccharides (e.g., glucose, fructose, galactose), disaccharides (e.g., sucrose, lactose, maltose), trisaccharides, and oligosaccharides, in contrast to complex carbohydrates such as polysaccharides. Corn syrup, dextrose, crystalline fructose, and maltose, for example, are used in manufacturing and preparing food.
Sugar, while composed of partial fructose, will still send the glucose straight to the blood, causing insulin levels to increase while you experience a quick burst of energy.

Unfortunately, this burst of energy is frequently followed by a drop, which often just leaves you hungry and craving more. That, in turn, can cause you to consume more food during the day, increasing your calorie intake.

Health Benefits include:
Providing instant source of energy.
Spares the protein found in food stuffs for building tissues and repair worn out tissues rather than from providing energy.
Provides only source of energy for brain, eyes and blood cells RBCs.
Human Health Effects:
Blood Glucose Level: Sugar, because of its simpler chemical structure, may raise blood glucose levels more quickly than starch.
Obesity & Diabetes: Eating excessive amounts of sugar does not increase the risk of diabetes, although the extra calories from consuming large amounts of sugar can lead to obesity, which may increase the risk of diabetes.
Cardiovascular Diseases: Chronic consumption of refined sugars can contribute to metabolic and cardiovascular dysregulation.
Tooth Decay: There is convincing evidence for an association between the amount and frequency of free sugars intake and dental caries.
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