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Wheat
Wheat is a grass. Globally, wheat is the leading source of vegetable protein in human food, having higher protein content than either maize (corn) or rice, the other major cereals. The whole grain can be milled to leave just the endosperm for white flour. The products of this are bran and germ. The whole grain is a concentrated source of vitamins, minerals, and protein, while the refined grain is mostly starch.

Raw wheat can be ground into flour or, using hard durum wheat only, can be ground into semolina; germinated and dried creating malt; crushed or cut into cracked wheat; parboiled (or steamed), dried, crushed and de-branned into bulgur also known as groats. If the raw wheat is broken into parts at the mill, as is usually done, the outer husk or bran can be used several ways. Wheat is a major ingredient in such foods as bread, porridge, crackers, biscuits, Muesli, pancakes, pies, pastries, cakes, cookies, muffins, rolls, doughnuts, gravy, boza (a fermented beverage), and breakfast cereals.

100 grams of hard red winter wheat contain about 12.6 grams of protein, 1.5 grams of total fat, 71 grams of carbohydrate, 12.2 grams of dietary fiber, and 3.2 mg of iron (17% of the daily requirement); the same weight of hard red spring wheat contains about 15.4 grams of protein, 1.9 grams of total fat, 68 grams of carbohydrate (by difference), 12.2 grams of dietary fiber, and 3.6 mg of iron (20% of the daily requirement). Much of the carbohydrate fraction of wheat is starch. Wheat starch is an important commercial product of wheat, but second in economic value to wheat gluten.

Health Benefits of Whole Wheat Products:
People who eat whole grains weigh less
Whole grains reduce risk of metabolic syndrome
Whole grains substantially lower type 2 diabetes risk
Whole wheat's betaine, a metabolic by-product of choline, lessens chronic inflammation.
Whole grains help prevent gallstones
Whole wheat promotes gastrointestinal health
Fiber from whole grains and fruit protective against breast cancer
Phytochemicals present in whole wheat is filled with health-promoting activity equal to or even higher than that of vegetables and fruits
Lignans protect against heart disease
Significant cardiovascular benefits for postmenopausal women
 
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