Kidney Stone (Urolithiasis). Renal stone consists of mucopoly saccharides, urates, calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. Urate and oxalate stones are most common. Cystine stones are very rare
Kidney stones are solid concretions or crystal aggregations formed in the kidneys from dietary minerals in the urine. Kidney stones typically leave the body by passage in the urine stream, and many stones are formed and passed without causing symptoms. If stones grow to sufficient size before passage (usually at least 2–3 millimeters), then they can cause obstruction of the ureter. The resulting obstruction causes dilation or stretching of the upper ureter and renal pelvis (the part of the kidney where the urine collects before entering the ureter) as well as spasm of the ureter, trying to move the stone. This leads to pain, most commonly felt in the flank, lower abdomen and groin.
The diagnosis of a kidney stone can be confirmed by radiological studies and/or ultrasound examination; urine tests and blood tests are also commonly performed.
Dietary Management For Kidney Stone Patients
Preventive strategies may include diet modifications and medication with the goal of reducing excretory load on the kidneys. Here are some important kidney stone diet tips for patients that one can use in Diet Plans
Also Read: Various Kidney Related Diseases and Their Diet Remedies
- Drinking enough water to make 2 to 2.5 liters of urine per day. A failure to intake sufficient liquids will mean the urine is concentrated and the substances that create kidney stones are more likely to clump together.
- Diet should be low in protein, as a diet high in protein may lead to kidney stones because extra protein causes calcium to be excreted from the body, raising calcium levels in the urine.
- Prevention strategies include restriction of oxalate-rich foods, or consumption of more calcium.
- Some fruit juices, such as orange, blackcurrant, and cranberry, may be useful for lowering the risk factors for specific types of stones. Orange juice may help prevent calcium oxalate stone formation, blackcurrant may help prevent uric acid stones, and cranberry may help with UTI-caused stones.
- Grapefruit juice and dark colas have been found to increase the risk of stone formation and should be avoided by people who are prone to calcium oxalate stone formation.
- Salt is made up of sodium and chloride. The sodium in salt, when excreted by the kidneys, causes more calcium to be excreted into the urine. High concentrations of calcium in the urine combine with oxalate and phosphorus to form stones. Reducing salt intake is preferred to reducing calcium intake.
- Meats and other animal protein contain purine, which break down into uric acid in the urine. People who form uric acid stones should limit their meat consumption.
- Calcium from food does not increase the risk of calcium oxalate stones. Calcium in the digestive tract binds to oxalate from food and keeps it from entering the blood, and then the urinary tract, where it can form stones. People who form calcium oxalate stones should include 800 mg of calcium in their diet every day, not only for kidney stone prevention but also to maintain bone density. A cup of low-fat milk contains 300 mg of calcium. Other dairy products such as yogurt are also high in calcium.
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